HISTORY OF THE VIKINGS
(SCAND 370 A / HSTAM 370 A)
5 credits, VLPA / I&S
Professor Terje Leiren
Office: 305T Raitt Hall
This is a lecture/discussion course on the history of the Vikings. Following a largely chronological sequence, but not rigidly bound by it, the class will exam the history of Scandinavia during the "viking age," approximately AD 750 - AD 1100, through the written and archeological records. The first half of the course will focus on the Vikings at home in Scandinavia. This will include an examination of the origins of Vikings society in the pre-historical period, including aspects of the great migrations and subsequent settlement patterns, the establishment of family farms, and the development of Viking material culture (such as the Viking ship). We will also examine the political, social and cultural expressions of Viking society, such as commercial expansion, military conflict and religious expression. The structure and significance of the pre-Christian pagan religion of the Scandinavian North will also be discussed. The second half of the course will focus on the expansion of Viking society and the international contacts through exploration, settlement, trading and raiding. Included in this overview will be Viking activity in Russia, Byzantium, Germany, France, England, Ireland, and Scotland as well as the North Sea islands of the Faroes, Iceland, Greenland and Vinland (in North America).
Historically, Vikings have inspired, and occasionally romanticized by, writers and musicians alike, from Richard Wagner in the nineteenth century, to J.R.R. Tolkien in the twentieth century. Hollywood and popular culture have made the Vikings ubiquitous. What is the historical basis for some of these developments? Who were these people we call "Vikings" and how might they have lived? What were the roles of family, law, art and literature in Viking society? And, what is their enduring legacy in modern culture and society?
This course has, essentially, two learning objectives: 1) to develop a fundamental knowledge of the Scandinavian region in the so-called "Viking age" and; 2) to develop a critical understanding of the history, culture and broader influence of the Vikings at home and abroad. This course seeks to create a basic familiarity with, and an understanding of, Scandinavian culture and history during the "Viking age." Students should be able to speak and write accurately about the Vikings and the northern European region in the "age of the Vikings."
There are two exams in this course, a mid-term and a final. Exams will consist of three parts: fill-in-the-blank; multiple choice; and written short-answers to specific questions relating to the subject matter. The final exam is not comprehensive but will consist of questions covered in the second half of the course. Each exam will count as 50% of the final grade.
In class lectures are the major component of this course. Lectures will consist of the presentation of topics and themes relating to the main subject of the course, the history of the Vikings. Lectures will occasionally be supplemented by films and videos. As an online course, the structure will be..????????????????????????????????????????????/???
Else Roesdahl, The Vikings
John Haywood, The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Vikings
Robert Ferguson, The Vikings: A History
Snorri Sturluson, The Prose Edda
A complete course schedule with specific pages to be read will be available in class at the beginning of each quarter but in broad terms, the outline of the course is as follows:
Week 1: The Establishment of Viking Scandinavia:
Introduction to the Course; Background to the Viking age; The Written Sources; The Geography of the Viking World.
Readings: Roesdahl, 9-29; Haywood, 8-25, 136-137; Ferguson, 41-57.
Weeks 2: Vikings society; Daily Life.
Rigsthula (www.pitt.edu/~dash/rig.html); Roesdahl, 3-77, 94-128; Haywood, 28-39, 42-45.
Week 3: Cultural Beliefs; Political power and Social norms:
Håvamål (www.pitt.edu/~dash/havamal.html) ; Roesdahl, 168-184;
Weeks 4 & 5: Religion and Spiritual Values; Norse Mythology.
Sturluson, Prose Edda (entire book); Roesdahl, 147-158; Ferguson, 20-40.
Week 6: Viking Expansion I: Ships, Merchants, and Traders.
Roesdahl, 78-93, 129-146, 185-194; Haywood, 40-41.
Week 7: Viking Expansion II: Raids and Settlement.
Roesdahl, 195-209, 262-292; Haywood, 54-61, 76-77, 80-83, 86-109; Ferguson, 83-131, 153-215, 245-324.
Week 8: The Big Prize - Vikings in Britain:
Roesdahl, 210-261; Ferguson, 58-82; 132-152, 216-244, 325-347.
Weeks 9-10: Conclusions: A New Religious Norm; 1966-Stamford Bridge and Hastings:
Roesdahl, 158-167, 295-297; Haywood, 120-127, 132-134; Ferguson, 348-382.
Last Day of Class: Monday, December 7, 2020